Skin Care Ingredients That Are Essential For Collagen Production
Collagen is an essential integral protein of the skin that helps to maintain the structure, function, and elasticity of the skin. Healthy and intact skin is an effective barrier between the internal and external environment. This enables the skin to prevent harmful organisms from invading the deeper structures and serves as the first line of defense. Collagen is a triple helix structure characterized by three chains that wind around one another. Collagen proteins adhere together to form collagen fibrils, which are laid down by specialized cells called fibroblasts. Collagen fibrils are crucial for the strength and integrity of the skin.
Many external and internal factors are responsible for damaging collagen and compromising the integrity of the skin barrier. These factors include the normal aging process, unhealthy diet, excessive exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation of the sun, age-related collagen degradation, nutrient deficiencies, and alcohol and tobacco use. As collagen diminishes and loses its stability, the skin also undergoes several changes. The skin becomes susceptible to the formation of wrinkles and fine lines and loses its natural elasticity. Skincare products, including face serum, contain ingredients that are important for accelerating collagen production and maintaining skin moisture.
Vitamin C for Skin
What are the two layers of skin?
The two main layers of skin are the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is composed of skin cells called keratinocytes, which adhere to each other tightly. The underlying dermis is comprised of non-cellular material or matrix that strengthens the skin barrier from within. Fibroblasts are one of the major cell types present in the matrix of the dermis, where they synthesize and lay down collagen fibers. These fibers are essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the skin. Collagen also helps retain the moisture of the skin as collagen attracts water molecules.
What causes skin damage?
Solar radiations are responsible for damaging the skin. Moreover, free radicals that are generated upon exposure to UV radiation also damage the tissues. These deteriorate the skin, cause dryness, and give rise to wrinkles and fine lines.
What is vitamin C? What is the primary role of vitamin C in maintaining skin health?
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that has antioxidant properties. Vitamin C and other nutrients and enzymes destroy the free radicals and protect the skin from damage.
What are the benefits of vitamin C regarding collagen in facial skin?
Vitamin C facilitates the activity of enzymes that stabilize collagen, including proline and lysine hydroxylases. Vitamin C also promotes the production and release of collagen by the fibroblasts. Individuals who lack sufficient vitamin C in the epidermis and dermis layers of their skin are more prone to damage by ultraviolet solar radiation, free radicals, and reactive oxygen species.
How vitamin C prevents hyperpigmentation?
Apart from the antioxidant and collagen-stimulating properties, vitamin C also protects against different skin conditions. Ascorbic acid hinders the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of melanin pigment in the skin. Melanin pigment is responsible for imparting a characteristic brown color to the skin. By suppressing this enzyme and resultant melanin synthesis, vitamin C is effective at treating hyperpigmentation in melasma, sun spots, and other skin conditions.
Does vitamin C affect the skin barrier?
This vitamin also plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. This strengthens the skin's protective barrier and prevents pathogens and harmful environmental substances from damaging skin and deeper tissues.
How does vitamin C prevent skin dehydration?
Vitamin C also promotes the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans which are important constituents of the dermis of the skin. Glycosaminoglycans attract water molecules and form a gel-like structure. This makes the skin soft and smooth as the molecules retain moisture and reduce the invisible signs of aging.
Vitamin A for Skin
How do ultraviolet radiations of the sun cause skin damage and premature aging?
The skin undergoes damage when there is excessive exposure to UV radiation from the sun. These radiations cause damage to the essential structures of the skin and give rise to wrinkles, dryness, loss of moisture, impaired blood clotting, and pigmentation of the skin. Among these structures, collagen is highly susceptible to destruction by radiation. The underlying mechanisms consist of radiation-induced inflammation and impairment of normal protective functions of the skin. These inflammatory changes cause the skin to become dry, thick, and less elastic. Depletion of collagen also limits the hydration content of the skin. Ultraviolet radiations also affect vitamin A receptors in the skin cells and give rise to a vitamin A-deficiency state.
What is vitamin A?
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not synthesized by the human body but obtained via diet. Foods contain two types of vitamin A, depending on whether the food is plant-based or animal-based. These are Beta-carotene and retinyl ester, respectively. Vitamin A is metabolized and absorbed in the gut followed by its transport via chylomicrons in the blood to the different organs as well as the liver for storage. Retinyl ester is the primary storage form of vitamin A in the liver. Vitamin A has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties for treating damaged skin.
How does vitamin A protect the skin from UV-induced damage?
Vitamin A strengthens the skin barrier and prevents UV rays from affecting the deeper layers of skin. Vitamin A also reduces the appearance of wrinkles as it promotes the production of newer collagen and elastic fibers. Thus, this activity of vitamin A restores the normal matrix composition of the skin. Concerning inflammatory conditions, vitamin A proves to be helpful in modulating inflammation that is otherwise detrimental to skin and causes the release of enzymes that cause the destruction of collagen and elastin fibers. Damaged skin tends to be more fragile and prone to skin abnormalities. Vitamin A stimulates the production and release of type VII collagen that provides physical strength to the skin. Different derivatives of vitamin A are added into skincare formulations for healing damaged skin and restoring skin integrity. Therefore, vitamin A is an excellent option for stimulating collagen production in the skin and giving the skin and fresh and radiant glow.
Coenzyme Q10 for Skin
What is coenzyme Q10?
Skincare products containing coenzyme Q10 or Co Q10 are highly beneficial for the skin's optimal health. Co Q10 is also known as ubiquinone, which is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that helps in carrying out the normal metabolic reactions in human cells.
How does Co Q10 protect the skin from damage?
Ubiquinone demonstrates its antioxidant properties both outside and inside the cell. This substance protects the cells from the harmful action of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are byproducts of normal body reactions and can also be generated by the UV radiations of the sun. They damage the cell's DNA, accelerate the aging process, and promote the degradation of different skin components. The antioxidant properties of ubiquinone enable it to neutralize the free radicals and reactive oxygen species, thus, making the skin less susceptible to oxidative damage.
What happens when natural Co Q10 in the skin depletes?
Various internal and external factors deplete the ubiquinone content of the skin. These include exposure to solar radiation, direct contact of skin with harmful chemicals, and the normal aging process. Skin with low ubiquinone content is characterized by reduced elasticity and the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. The lesser concentration of ubiquinone in the cells makes the DNA, mitochondria, and lipid content of cells prone to damage.
What is the active form of Co Q10 or ubiquinone?
Topical formulations of skincare products are essential for replenishing the ubiquinone content of the epidermis of the skin and defending the skin against oxidative stress. Enzymes convert ubiquinone into its active form called ubiquinol. Ubiquinol is responsible for neutralizing the free radicals and preventing them from causing skin damage.
What is the benefit of the topical formulation containing Co Q10?
The topical application of skincare products containing Co Q10 provides deeper penetration of this substance into the skin as well as converts to ubiquinol, similar to naturally present ubiquinone. This substance elevates the energy metabolism of keratinocytes and increases the antioxidative capacity of these cells. Optimal ubiquinone concentration of the skin aids in achieving healthy skin as well as fades the visible signs of aging.
Niacinamide for Skin
What is niacinamide?
Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a water-soluble vitamin B3 derivative. Niacinamide promotes myriad metabolic reactions in the human body. Individuals who consume a lesser amount of diet containing niacinamide or consume lesser amounts of tryptophan develop its deficiency.
What happens in niacinamide deficiency?
Niacinamide deficiency manifests in different areas of the body, including the skin. The deficiency is apparent in those areas of skin that have greater exposure to sunlight, such as facial skin. As time progresses and deficiency remains uncorrected, the skin becomes thick, dry, flaky, and develops brown-blue discoloration.
How does niacinamide strengthen the skin barrier?
Oral supplementation and topical application of niacinamide-containing skincare products are beneficial for restoring the normal concentration of vitamin B3 in the body. Niacinamide is essential for maintaining and strengthening the protective barrier of the skin. Not only does niacinamide assist in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, but it also plays a vital role in the production of cholesterol, free fatty acids, and ceramides. These chemicals are important parts of the lipid part of the skin barrier. An intact and robust skin barrier prevents water loss from the skin and protects skin from damage.
How does niacinamide prevent premature aging of the skin?
The topical application of niacinamide increases the availability of this vitamin in the epidermis and dermis of the skin. Niacinamide increases the production of collagen, keratin, and other proteins. Moreover, niacinamide accelerates wound healing and improves skin texture. Vitamin B3 is also known for reducing wrinkle depth which fades the visible signs of aging, making the face look younger, fresher, and radiant. Niacinamide also prevents skin damage and decreases the risk of developing skin cancer due to UV radiations of the sun. This is done by neutralizing the reactive oxygen species and protecting cellular DNA from damage.
Hyaluronic Acid for Skin
What is hyaluronic acid?
Hyaluronic acid is present in the matrix of the dermis. The unique molecular structure of hyaluronic acid makes it capable of holding 1000 times more water than its weight. Hyaluronic acid holds the collagen and elastin fibers in place, maintaining the structure and elasticity of the skin. Depletion of hyaluronic acid as age progresses is responsible for the derangement of collagen and elastin fibers. This gives rise to wrinkles, facial lines, and nasolabial folds. The anti-wrinkle properties of hyaluronic acid enable it to conceal the visible signs of aging.
How does hyaluronic acid promote hydration of the skin?
Hyaluronic acid protects the skin from solar radiation and promotes collagen production in the skin. Individuals who suffer from facial deformities or have lost facial volume due to aging also derive benefits from a topical hyaluronic acid treatment. Since hyaluronic acid retains an excessive amount of moisture, it plays a vital role in augmenting facial volume and giving the face a youthful and vibrant look.
What is the role of hyaluronic acid in wound healing and treating skin conditions?
Hyaluronic acid is an integral ingredient of skincare products that can also be used for treating scars and accelerating wound healing. Concerning wound healing, hyaluronic acid forms a scaffold for the normal healing process to occur and also prevents excessive inflammation at the concerned site. Hyaluronic acid also suppresses the release of inflammatory mediators or cytokines. Thus, hyaluronic acid is beneficial for treating various skin conditions that cause irritation, itchiness, dryness, and redness of the skin.
Face serums contain highly effective and beneficial ingredients that stimulate collagen production and minimize the effects of aging on the face. These ingredients include vitamin A, vitamin C, hyaluronic acid, niacinamide, and coenzyme Q10. All of these ingredients are the normal constituents of the skin and work in harmony to maintain the integrity of the skin barrier. However, depletion of any of these ingredients makes the facial skin susceptible to environmental insults and reduces collagen production. Regular use of a face serum enriched with all these ingredients can restore the concentration of essential skin constituents. This helps in making the skin look younger, tighter, and smoother.